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Picture Books are a treat throughout the world.  There are so many different kinds, designed for children and adults of all ages.  But Kamishibai are a special treat that I think are pretty unique to Japan.

Kamishibai is, literally, “paper drama” or “paper theater”.  It is a type of storytelling in Japan that started in Buddhist temples around the 12th Century.  In the modern era, kamishibai is much closer to vaudeville or some kinds of puppetry, in that the storytellers were often traveling entertainers and even minor hucksters, playing in and around carnivals and festivals throughout the countryside.   This was particularly true after the 1920s, when the Great Depression in the United States had an impact worldwide.  Although the protagonist in the long-running movie, Otoko wa Tsurai yo, Tora-san, never was a kamishibai storyteller, his character was a travelling salesman, who tells humorous and glorified stories to help boost the sales of his trinkets and wares.  This is precisely the kind of world in which the kamishibai storytellers thrived.

Kamishibai storytellerWhile travelling kamishibai storytellers have all but disappeared, there are a number who are trying to revive the old art.  This artist is part of a small group – I’ve seen him twice around Tokyo with a compadre – that tells an original story that is an adaptation of an oft-told historical tale.  His version is supposed to be a frightening one, but being told in the daytime and with his style of delivery, it becomes a comical horror story.

In this Creative Commons photograph from Wikipedia, you can see the storyteller carrying a pair of sticks hoyshigi, that he uses to announce his arrival and capture the audience’s attention.  The wooden case is a special stage that the storyteller uses to show the frames of his storybook.

The stage has an open rear, from which slides are changed, and with the story lines written on the back.  Because the frames are removed from the side facing the audience, the back side of the slide contains the text pertaining to the next slide.  When the slide that is just finished is removed and the slide replaced back into the frame furthest away from the audience, then the words on its back side are read to the audience.  Of course, street performers tend not to read from the slides, but perform ad lib while a compadre changes the slides.

In the past few decades, kamishibai have experienced a revival, due to their use in libraries, elementary schools, and kindergartens.  In many libraries there are special rooms, equipped with a kamishibai stage and filled with books.  There are now publishers that have divisions that focus on kamishibai books, such as Doshinsha (Japanese).  However, due to a growing popularity of kamishibai around the world, the company now publishes English and French translations of many of their books.  The Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, California has a wonderful and beautiful kamishibai demonstration online in electronic format.

There is also a great site about kamishibai for kids.  Based in New York, the three people associated with the site, Margaret Eisenstadt, Donna Tamaki, and Eigoro Futamata, have created quite an amazing resource, including materials for schools and teachers and a range of publications that they have translated and illustrated for Doshinsha.  They also apparently conduct readings and other events in the United States.  I’ve also found kamishibai sites in German, Spanish, French, and other languages, showing that their appeal is cross cultural.

Watch this short video of a kamishibai master, Yassan, on YouTube – it’s in Japanese, but you might become a fan!

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スッパイマン・キャンディ

Suppaiman Sour Plum Candy

Suppaiman (スッパイマン) is the brand name of a popular series of products made by a company based in Okinawa, Amaume.

The Suppaiman products mostly feature prominently a Japanese sour plum, which is known as
umeboshi.
The word “umeboshi” consists of two characters, ume– meaning “plum” – and hoshi – meaning “dried” or “to dry”.  Umeboshi is a very popular item throughout Japan, used as a condiment in meals – particularly breakfast – and in many confectionaries.  There are a great many types of umeboshi, ranging from the very sour to salty and often also being sweetened to some extent.

梅干し

Sour plum dish

In addition, not all umeboshi are eaten dried.  They are frequently kept in a wet state, especially as an ingredient used in the typical Japanese boxed lunch, containing rice balls.  Umeboshi are extremely popular as they are a preserved food, much like pickles in the west, that can be eaten through a long, hot, and humid summer.  They are said to assist digestion, increase stamina, and protect against aging.

The Suppaiman plum candy is very cool.  It has a dried plum suspended inside of a hard and thick candy shell.  The candy itself is a bekkoame, a hard candy that is common in Japan.  The umeboshi is exposed on one side, so the candy is always a bit sour in the mouth.  The bekkoame is very hard, so it lasts a very long time in the mouth if you do not bite down and crush it.

close up view of suppaiman

close up of suppaiman

I mostly eat Suppaiman when I am riding my bike.  The sweet/sour flavor keeps my mouth feel clean, even when in traffic.  I even think it helps my pollen allergies.

But as the Amaume website shows, there are a great many Suppaiman products.  The dried plums themselves were probably first, but the candy and furikake, a type of flavored flake topping for rice, are also popular.  But the most interesting, I think, is the mimigaa jerky.  Mimigaa is an Okinawan specialty, made from dried pigs ears.  Usually boiled and pickled in Okinawa, pigs ears are found in cuisine throughout the world, including much of Asia, the South in the United States, Spain, Bulgaria, and Lithuania.  I’m not very fond of its gelatinous texture, which makes mimigaa a little crunchy.

Suppai in Japanese, means “sour”. Man usually means “man” or “person”, but at the end of a word, it frequently means very little.  It is mostly a word “play” that makes an adverb – like sour – sound more like a noun, or a thing.  But the series of commercials for Suppaiman in Japan, mostly aired in the Kansai region, which is noted for its appreciation of humor, gives even greater meaning to its name.

No doubt, I am a huge fan of Suppaiman!

Suppaiman Products

Lots of Suppaiman Products!!!

It’s not really something representing Japan, of course, but the original experiments with water crystals that are now known as “Messages from Water” were conducted by Dr. Masaru Emoto, a Japanese national.  As the Wikipedia article thoroughly summarizes, Emoto’s experiments with water and his claims that positive changes to water crystals can be achieved through prayer, music or by attaching written words to a container of water, have been dismissed by the scientific community as pseudoscience.

I have nothing to refute the scientific community.  Nevertheless, I find Emoto’s mysterious experiments to be fascinating and, even, delightful.  After all, I do believe that the whole of what we “know” in the universe amounts to a very small part; that is, most of the universe and “science” is still unknown and undiscovered.  This, I believe to be true even if we look at our past.  But if we are looking at the present or the future, then all but a small fraction is a mystery.

Thus, while I don’t generally subscribe to New Age explanations or theories about how our world is organized or the direction it is heading, I find the “discovery” of mysterious crystals in water to be comforting and, at least, entertaining.  And, while I find the commercialism of Office Masaru Emoto to be rather disappointing – selling bottles of water that has been prayed upon (people who buy it have been preyed upon) – it is not really all that surprising or unusual in our world.

On the other hand, if Masaru Emoto’s findings can be used to get more people to appreciate beautiful music, be helpful and kind, and to promote goodness, fairness, and justice in our world, then it is a wonderful discovery!

In any case, I think the story is well worth exploring.  While there are a great many sites and YouTube channels devoted to the topic, here are two that I find to be worth viewing.  The first one is about Masaru Emoto’s research.  The second is about other research on water that uncovers some additional mysteries.

I’m off to the pool for a swim…

The Mystery of Water

Water Has Memory

The TOTO Toilet Motorcycle

TOTO Toilet Motorcycle

I call it the Toto-cycle, though it is officially known as the “Toilet Bike NEO“, according to the TOTO official site.  Despite what it looks like, let’s get one thing straight, it does not run on human waste, nor does the real toilet used in the bike work.  The toilet used in the motorcycle is a real toilet, made by the cycle’s developer, TOTO, Japan’s leading toilet manufacturer.  The toilet used in the motorcycle is a retrofitted version of its Neorest toilet, hence its official name.

The bike was made to promote TOTO’s environmental work and does run on biogas.  However, the biogas it uses is not made using human waste, but biogas fuel (fertilized, purified and compressed livestock waste and household wastewater) provided by Shika-oi Town in Hokkaido and Kobe city.  As CSR, though, the Toto-cycle is quite a phenomenon.  It was featured last year in a popular TV commercial:

Since then, the bike continues to be used in commercials showcasing the company’s ecological commitment, TOTO Green Challenge.  This commitment is to reduce 50% of CO2 emissions in Japan’s toilets by 2017 from emissions in 1990.

As a ecological commitment, the TOTO Green Challenge is ambitious and promising.  As a thought provoking concept, the Toto-cycle is fantastic design.  But what makes it so noteworthy is that the whole idea is fun and socially open.  The company has chosen to embrace open networks, using Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube to promote and to source ideas for new things to do.  The Twitter account may only have 1141 followers, including me, but it is following more than 1000 people.

You can feel the fun that is part of the bike’s development and promotions.  That, ultimately, to me, should be what makes people embrace ecological and socially responsible behaviors.

And fun, my friends, is what makes the best things cool!

You are probably wondering, “How can currency be so cool?”  After all, cash is cash.  It is great to get paid and great to spend it, but it is only cool because of what you get in return for your cash, right?

Well, I’m not so sure.  I like spending money, too, to get what I need and want.  But in Japan, I think that the currency itself is pretty darn cool.

What is Currency?

Currency, of course, is defined as money in any form used as a medium of exchange, but the term is often taken to mean the paper bills of a country.  The paper bills of Japan are, to me, among the most beautiful and cool of any found in the world.

Japanese banknotes were overhauled in 2004, with a range of security measures added to the new designs.  The printing includes a wide range of technologies, including special inks, printing techniques, and special marks.

Inks

Inks included in Japanese banknotes since 2000 (including the 2000 yen note issued to commemorate the millenium and the 26th G8 Summit) include fluorescent, luminescent, and pearl inks. These special inks are all somewhat similar, in that they all give a sheen or shine under a variety of circumstances, unlike standard inks. Fluorescent ink is also known as invisible ink and is the kind of ink that glows when black lights (UV emitting) are shined on it. Luminescent ink is similar to fluorescent ink, but appears to shine without the use of black lights. Pearl ink, as the name implies, has tiny reflective particles in it that give it a sheen that is pearl-like. The video below gives a good demonstation of how fluorescent inks work:

Printing Techniques

In particular, Japanese banknotes employ for security measures printing technologies such as Intaglio printing, microprinting, and latent imaging. Intaglio printing is basically a type of printmaking that uses etching, engraving, and other incisions on the surface of copper or zinc plates.  Microprinting is, basically, exactly what it sounds like.  Usually, it is the printing of really small text, which makes a bill extremely difficult to counterfeit, because it is usually too small to read without magnification.  Latent imaging is really simply a photographic process that creates “invisible” images.  The images can be seen when it is exposed to light.

Special Marks

Japanese bills employ a range of special marks, including tactile marks, watermark, watermark-bar pattern, and display of the EURion Constellation.  Tactile marks are a technology that is in both the paper and imprinting, that enable the blind and visually impaired people to identify it.  In addition, the tactility makes the paper more durable and resistant to deterioration.  Watermarking of the bill includes both images and a bar pattern, both of which are extremely difficult to reproduce. Finally, the EURion Constellation is a pattern of symbols found on many banknotes used globally since around 1996. The pattern resembles the constellation Orion.

The central watermark printed in a 10000 yen note can be seen in the image below:

Invisible image in 10000 yen note

watermark image unveiled in 10000 yen note

A Barrier to Counterfeiting

The combination of features serve to prevent counterfeiting for one primary reason – it is just too expensive! In order to reproduce a bill that can deceive most people, especially a big store or a bank, the total cost of the paper and printing is likely to cost more than the bill itself is worth.

Who’s on First. What’s on Second.

Another of the features that makes Japanese currency special is who and what is printed on the bills. The currency of the United States features, for the most part, past presidents and major political figures. Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, Jackson, and Grant, as well as Alexander Hamilton and Benjamin Franklin, adorn common US currency. The Queen Elizabeth is on the currencies of Great Britain and many Commonwealth nations. But Japan’s currency celebrates many different figures.

The 1000 yen note features Noguchi Hideyo, a bacteriologist that discovered the agent of syphilis.  The 5000 yen note is adorned by Higuchi Ichiyō, a female author who lived only to the age of 24, but is considered the first female professional writer in modern Japanese literature.  The 10000 yen note features Fukuzawa Yukichi, an author, writer, teacher, translator, entrepreneur and political theorist who founded Keio University.  The previous currency, issued in 1984, featured on the 1000 yen note the famed author Sōseki Natsume, best known for his novels, Kokoro, Botchan, and I am a Cat.  On the 5000 yen note was Nitobe Inazō, a agricultural economist, author, educator, diplomat, politician, and, notably, a Christian.

The persecution of Christians in Japan is the subject of much historical attention in the west.  Because of the spread of Christianity in most of the world, the prohibition of open practice of the faith for roughly 300 years from late 1500 to late 1800 was an anomaly.  Furthermore, the person who first ousted Christian missionaries was none other than Toyotomi Hideyoshi, one of Japan’s most revered rulers, or daimyo.  In fact, however, the most brutal treatment of Christians was practiced under Hideyoshi’s successors, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tokugawa Hidetada, and Tokugawa Iemitsu.  To this day, Christians tend to be a silent minority in Japan, fearful of having to defend their faith against the majority of Buddhist/Shintoist/Agnostic peers.

What I find distinguishing about the faces that adorn modern Japanese currency is that they celebrate famous writers, scientists, educators, and, particularly, people who are not the statesmen an noblemen featured on notes issued until the late 1960s.  I cannot think of any other currency that features a bacteriologist!

Counting Money

Finally, one of the most interesting things about Japanese currency is how people count it. No, I don’t mean as in, “1, 2, 3…”. The number system is interesting, too, but that is a separate matter. The way that Japanese people count wads of bills is special. Watch, and enjoy:

Now, wouldn’t you agree that Japanese currency is pretty cool too?

Japan has some of the coolest manhole covers on this planet!

My library of images on Facebook is small, but I’ve been taking shots of some of the many cool manhole covers I see for years. In particular, I like the ones that are used by fire departments to connect their hoses to fight fires.

With the rapid penetration of smartphones in Japan since 2011, the hazards of being a pedestrian, cyclist, or motorist here are increasing. With so many people looking down while they walk and drive, it is amazing that some people actually get to where they are trying to go. However, like me, there are a lot of people in Japan that have been looking down at our feet for some time.

The most popular and acclaimed compilation of manhole covers that I know of has been put together by Remo Camerota in Drainspotting.  The book is supplemented by the Drainspotting blog, on Blogspot.

If you get a chance, take a good look at the ground you’re walking on. You might find some pretty impressive art!

And, BTW, here’s a great quiz question. Why are manhole covers nearly always round? Don’t worry, there are quite a few good answers, although one is considered the most pragmatic.

The Smart Scissors shown here are the work of FD Inc., whose Product Designer and President is Mitsunobu Hagino.  I met Hagino-san at last year’s Eco Products 2011 Show and have connected with him on Facebook.  As in the brief biography on the FD website, Hagino-san is trained as an architect.  However, the products he showcased at the show were his well designed tools for living.  Many of these tools are part of his series, Kitchen Gadgets.

I found all of the products that FD Inc. displayed at Eco Products to be extremely well designed and extremely cool.  Part of it is because of the great colors, sleek styling, and high quality stainless steel and fluorine resin coating.  But among these products, the Smart Scissors were really quite special.  (Technically, they are not part of the Kitchen Gadgets line, but they look very much part of the same family.)

Merits of Smart Scissors


Cutting with Smart Scissors

Branch cut with Smart Scissors

First, the Smart Scissors blade is designed to cut with the least amount of effort.  If you look closely, you can see that the scissors have a blade on only one side.  The other scissor “arm” is made of a rubber that grips the branch being cut.  This enables the scissors to slice the branch or stem in a manner that is much like a knife or, really, a Japanese sword.

This is good for several reasons.  It reduces the stress, felt by the hands and fingers, so the branch cuts more easily, reducing fatigue.  It also means a smoother and cleaner cut, so a cut flower will bloom in a vase for a longer period than if the stem is damaged.  The difference is actually very clear.

Comparison of the branch cut between standard Pruning and Smart Scissors


pruning scissors cut

Smart Scissors cut

Second, the scissors’ single blade is replaceable.  While the blade can be sharpened, it is really quite difficult to do so, as the blade is small.  Even if the blade were larger, it is still quite difficult to sharpen the blade of scissors when compared to a knife.  And, really, how often do most people even bother to sharpen their kitchen knives?  The Smart Scissors blade can be released by a single locked lever.  No wonder it was awarded a Good Design Award in Japan in 2009.

The scissors come in 6 great colors.  I like the beautiful matte black, but I also prefer black shirts, pants, socks, and shoes and I have black hair (except usually shaved).  The Smart Scissors are sold online in the FD Store at ¥2,520.  Shipping costs extra, but the company provides some beautifully designed gift wrapping as well.

島人ぬ宝

The title of this song, “Shimanchu nu Takara”, in the dialect of the people of Okinawa, means “Treasures of the Island People”.  Sung by the Japanese band, BEGIN, the song tells a wonderful story of youth leaving Okinawa to forge a new life on the mainland, but for whom the distinctive culture and language of the islands is important.  It is, no doubt, a song that is based on the bands own experience, having started to achieve national acclaim when the song was released in 2002.

Shimanchu nu Takara is one of my favorite Japanese songs, because it is one that not only celebrates local cultures and cultural heritage, but also for its eloquent portrayal of someone who has chosen to leave his homeland and yet maintains strong bonds to his upbringing.  For me, it echoes in both ears.  I left my own upbringing in California, where I still call home.  On the other hand, I came to Japan in 1987 to discover the roots of my ancestors and, in that sense, my cultural heritage.  I feel like someone who is caught between two islands, both of which are home and where I have cultural and linguistic roots.

The lyrics to the song are followed, line by line, with a brief translation.

Boku ga umareta kono shima no sora o  (Looking up at the sky of the Islands here where I was born)
Boku wa dore kurai shite iru n darou  (and I wonder how much I know about the sky)
Kagayaku hoshi mo nagareru kumo mo  (shining stars and billowing clouds)
Namae o hikaretemo wakaranai  (I have no idea what they are called…)
Demo dare yori dare yori mo shitte iru  (Still, I know more than anybody else)
Kanashii toki mo ureshii toki mo  (in sadness and in happiness)
Nando mo miagete ita kono sora o  (the sky I’ve looked up upon so many times)
Kyoukashou ni kaite aru koto dake ja wakaranai  (There is no way to comprehend by just reading textbooks)
Taisetsu na mono ga kitto koko ni aru hazu sa  (There must be something invaluable here)
Sore ga shimanchu nu takara  (That is the Treasure of the Island People)
Boku ga umareta kono shima no umi o  (Looking below at the oceans of the islands here where I was born)
Boku wa dore kurai shitte iru n darou  (and I wonder how much I know about the ocean)
Yogereteku sango mo hette yuku sakana mo  (the dirty coral and the disappearing fish populations)
Doushitara ii noka wakaranai  (I have no idea what to do about that)
Demo dare yori dare yori mo shitte iru  (Still, I know more than anyone)
Suna ni mamirete nami ni yurarete  (covered in sand and rocked by waves)
Sukoshi zutsukawatte yuku kono umi o  (the ocean that is slowly changing)
Terebi de wa utsusenai rajio demo nagasenai  (It cannot be shown on television or heard on the radio)
Taisetsu na mono ga kitto koko ni aru hazu sa  (There must be something invaluable here)
Sore ga shimanchu nu takara  (That is the Treasure of the Island People)
Boku ga umareta kono shima no uta o  (The music of the Islands here where I was born)
Boku wa dore kurai shitte iru n darou  (How much do I know them?)
Tubarama mo densaa bushi mo  (Tubarama and densaa bushi)
Kotoba no imi sae wakaranai  (I have no idea even what the words mean)
Demo dare yori dare yori mo shitte iru  (Still, I know more than anyone)
Iwai no yoru mo matsuri no asa mo  (the night of celebrations and the morning of festivals)
Doko kara ga kikoete kuru kono uta o  (the songs that can be heard everywhere)
Itsu no hi ka kono shima o hanareteku sono hi made  (until that day – someday – when I must leave the Islands)
Taisetsu na mono motto fukaku shite itai  (I want to really know and understand deeply the important things)
Sore ga shimanchu nu takara  (these are the Treasures of the Island People)

The Japanese Kanji character "Wa" in calligraphy

和 Wa

The Japanese character [和]”Wa“, is a very important one for understanding Japan and Japanese.  It has many important meanings, particularly peace, harmony, and Japanese style.  The character is used in a huge number of words; a list of many of the compounds in which the character is used in Japanese can be found on Wiktionary.

In Japanese, many Kanji characters have several readings; that is, they have different sounds when used in different words.  One indicator of the complexity and importance of a character in the language is the number of readings it uses.  This character has more than 20 different readings, depending on the context in which it is used!

The most simple reason that this is true is because the word’s origins are from the oldest recorded name for Japan.  This story is recorded most clearly and comprehensively, in English, on Wikipedia.  Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, until the 8th Century, generally referred to the nation with the character [倭]and the sound “Wa” or “Yamato”.  In the 8th Century, many Japanese began to find the character to be offensive and initiated the process to replace it with the character [和]meaning peace, harmony, or balance.  The sounds “Wa” and “Yamato” are retained to this day to mean the nation, Japan, and Japanese character or style, with the Kanji characters [和]”Wa” and [大和]”Yamato”.

The Wikipedia article provides a great deal of insight as to why the Japanese found the original character [倭]”Wa” to be offensive and repugnant.  The Chinese character combines the radical [人]or its simplified [イ]meaning “person” or “human”, with the character [委]meaning, in Japanese, to entrust or detail.  However, in Chinese, the character “wěi ” – which combines the elements for “grain” or “rice” [禾]over the character for “woman” [女]- is considered to have had derogatory meaning.  The Japanese of that period realized that the character used to represent Japan and Japanese depicted a person who was “bent down like a woman working with grain” and implied a “short, submissive, obedient, dwarf people”.   In this context, it is quite understandable that the Japanese were not pleased with the representation.

The character [和]”Wa”, then, represented a much better alternative.  The ideas of peace, harmony, and balance indicated a much more appealing sense of self and national worth.  But why [和]?  Apparently, this character has a very different etymology.

The character uses a [禾]”nogihen”, a character that is rarely used in Japanese alone, but as an element in a more complex Kanji, and [口]or “mouth”.  The “nogihen” has at its core the root [木]or “tree” and is used on the left hand side of many Japanese Kanji.  Apparently, the “nogihen” is indicative of a tree with 2 branches.  But it is also notable that this character is written with 5 (brush) strokes.  In the case of the Kanji  [和], the 5-stroke “nogihen” is combined with “mouth”.  This combination has been taken to mean that “harmony” is achieved when the “5 senses” are appreciated “tastefully”.

Thus, peace, harmony, and good Japanese style can be thought of as an attempt to find a good balance of the 5 senses in taste.  I like that!

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